The appropriate raw material’s preparation is one of the most important steps for obtaining vegetal oil. On this step, which happens before extraction, each seed goes through specific processes according to their physical or chemical characteristics, utilizing different equipment, such as:
which help to dehydrate raw material right after the harvest, reducing the seed’s humidity level so that the stocking won’t alter the oil’s quality.
Designed to separate larger or smaller materials than the processing seed. Also removes from the raw material sand, soil and metallic impurities to protect the process equipment.
They do the selection of the most adequate seeds to arrive at a very good quality final product. They are utilized also on the seeds separation, in pre-defined dimensions, expecting better productivity on the peeling.
BREAKERS AND GRINDERS
Prepare the raw material under processing to ease the boiling and the oil extraction.
Projected to total or partially peel the seeds used for oil extraction. When the objective of the peeled seeds is for feeding, the equipment must with the minor possible noticing of breaks.
Formed by a pair of cylindrical rolls realizes the flocculation of grains leaving them really thin, like paper, easing the oil extraction.
Promote an additional rupture to the seeds, through humid heat, from direct or indirect vapor. The boiling temperature varies according to the seed to be processed.
Before being submitted to the continuous presses processes, the boiled material must be dried.
Mechanical extraction can be applied in two ways:
The continuous press can be provided to operate with seeds under room temperature (cold extraction) or considered a thermal pre-treatment (with boiling).
Basically, we have two types of continuous presses: the ones that operate as “final pressing” (obtain the cake with low oil level) and the "pre-presses" (that partially remove the oil, preparing the raw material for posterior extraction by solvent).
HYDRAULIC OR DISCONTINUOUS PRESSING
The discontinuous pressing is utilized to process small volumes or extraction tests. When we need to process seeds with high oil levels, under room temperature (cold extraction, in small scale), the discontinuous press can be the most indicated, based on the fact that it doesn’t create heating generated by movement / friction between raw material and compression basket.
MICRO EXTRACTING PLANT - 100 kg/h (Steam)
MUE-100 (Steam) - Vegetal oils micro extraction plant, built in carbon steel, optionally in stainless steel, composed of: transporter, boiler feeder type elevator bucket, vertical boiler with indirect steam heating system, continuous filter press, decanter tank with duct interconnecting to the press filter, press filter, lung tank, filtered oil pump, strength and command panel, electrical and mechanical interconnections.
MICRO EXTRACTING PLANT - 100 kg/h (cold)
MUE-100 (cold) - Vegetal oils micro extracting plant, totally built in stainless steel, optionally in carbon steel. Designed to the cold oil extraction (room temperature), composed of: feeding transporter, metering hopper, filter press, lung tank, filtered oil pump, strength and command panel, electrical and mechanical interconnections.
MICRO EXTRACTING PLANT - 40 kg/h (direct fire)
MUE-40 (direct fire) - Vegetal oils extracting plant, built in carbon steel, optionally in stainless steel, composed of: gridding mill, direct fired boiler, press MPE-40, decanter tank with duct interconnecting to the filter press, lung tank, filtered oil pump, oil packaging system, strength and command panels, electrical and mechanical interconnections.
MICRO EXTRACTING PLANT - 100 kg/h (Direct fire)
MUE-100 (Direct fire) - Vegetal oils extracting plant, built in carbon steel, optionally in stainless steel, composed of: gridding mill, direct fired boiler, press MPE-100, decanter tank with duct interconnecting to the filter press, lung tank, filtered oil pump, oil packaging system, strength and command panels, electrical and mechanical interconnections.
PORTABLE MICRO PLANT
MUE-300 - Vegetal oils extraction unity mounted over metallic structure. Complete with raw material preparation, extraction and filtration of oil. Strength and command panel with tubing, cables and interconnection wires. Easy assemble / dismantling equipment with fixation on the transportation structure.
CHEMICAL EXTRACTION (BY SOLVENT)
The solvent extraction is an efficient method to extract the vegetal oil. The most utilized solvent is the one derived from the “hexane” oil, a mix of hydrocarbons with ebullition point around 70 C.
The solvent’s passage through the raw material, previously prepared, is called “washing”. The solvent’s diffusion will be quicker according to how good is the raw material’s preparation and how high is the extraction temperature (next to the solvent’s ebullition temperature).
During the extraction process, several equipment are utilized: extractor, desolventizer, evaporators, condensers, process tanks and finishing columns.
The refining process is meant to better the appearance, odor, flavor, among other vegetal oil properties, removing components that worsen its quality. The process steps depend on the quality of the gross oil available and the final oil desired utilization.
Realized through a filter press, removes impurity and the mechanical extraction process resulting fines (raw material particles), bleaching (bleaching soil that absorbed dye), winterization (waxes) and deodorization (oil final polishing).
Degumming can be done with water and/ or acid application. Treatment with phosphoric acid is the first step of the refining, particularly important the soya oil. It is also applied to other raw materials, like cotton and corn, in some cases it is not indispensable, but betters considerably the final product and reduces the refines losses by emulsion. After treated, the degummed oil is transferred to neutralization.
This process consists of lowering the oils acidity, eliminating free fatty acids through adding alkaline solution (caustic soda and water). Separation can be through decanting (in small scale) or centrifugation. The oil leaves de neutralization centrifuge and goes to the first wash tank. If the oil requires double neutralization, it follows to the second neutralization tank, where the desired values are reached.
After neutralization, the oil presents soap remaining that must be removed through hot water washing, in two steps that guarantee complete cleaning.
The oil drying consists of reducing the percentage of water in the oil, guaranteeing a minimum value for a good progress in the continuation of the refining process and/or commercialization.
Bleaching is the process through which it is removed part of the oil’s pigments, specially the yellow and red. Other colors such as blue are also reached, but with less intensity, such as metal traces, vitamins and oxidations..
Winterization is the process by which crystallizable waxes and stearines contained in the oil are removed. This process is indicated for oils like: cotton, corn, rice and sunflower.
The deodorization process consists of physically refining vegetal oils, using only heat, direct steam and high vacumm to remove the free fatty acid and odoriferous substance. This process can be discontinuous (small daily production) or continuous (large daily production).
Refining unity for several vegetal oils with the processes of neutralization, bleaching, winterization and deodorization, all of it in continuous flow and automatized.
Refining unity for several vegetal oils with neutralization, bleaching, winterization and deodorization processes, all in batches (per load), composed by the sections of: neutralization, winterization and deodorization.
STEAM DRAGLINE EXTRACTION
Several types of leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, chaffs and stalk allow the extraction of essential oils, which are highlighted because of the great therapeutic and economic importance due to the high content of active constituent. The company’s interest in this product keeps growing a lot and the commercialization moves millions of dollars all over the world.
These oil’s extraction is done through distillation. A steam flow goes through the raw material and drags with it the oil. When this steam condenses, we have two immiscible liquids: water and essential oil.
For this process, Ecirtec offers equipment with several production capacities. Among these are the VATS, tanks in which the raw material is wrapped for the process of distillation and the DECANTERS, that separate water from oil.
ISOLATED AND CONCENTRATED PROTEIN PRODUCTION
Installation comprehending the raw material preparation, soya oil extraction with white brans production, with oil refinery unity and isolated and concentrated soya protein production unity.
A mix of vegetal oil and anhydrous alcohol capable of reducing the presence of polluting gases on the environment, generate funds and bring economic development. This is the biodiesel scenery in Brazil, all the time more competitive against the inevitable future scarcity of fossil fuels and the systematic actions of the global warming fight.
For those who desire to take advantage of the moment and invest in this promising market, Ecirtec offers several equipment and develops projects for the production of biodiesel from several raw materials, always according to the ANP (NATIONAL PETROL AGENCY) specifications.
Biodiesel production is done from oil or available fat. If we have available a certain oleaginous seed, the following processes::
1. OIL EXTRACTION:
the oleaginous seed will be properly prepared and pressed for oil extraction. In large scale the extraction is done by solvent. The cake (solid part) resultant of the pressing will be treated and can be utilized as fertilizer, animal food and even human food. The cake application will be according the quality and raw material type and the operational conditions adopted in the extraction. The obtained oil follows to the next step;
2. OIL TREATING:
depending on the oil quality obtained in the previous step (or from third parts and/or recycling), we’ll have one or more of the following processes: filtration, degumming, neutralization, draining and winterization. To this point we’ll have clean oil, without gums, without acidity, without waxes and dry to be sent to the biodiesel production section through transesterification.
in this process, the oil is mixed with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in a tank with mechanical agitation, in the presence of a catalyzer. The reaction originates biodiesel and glycerin, substance present in 20% of vegetal oil.
with specific equipment (decanters or centrifuges) the glycerin is separated from biodiesel. At this point we’ll have biodiesel and glycerin still with alcohol presence. Through evaporators, condensers, washing and draining system biodiesel will be purified. Glycerin then without alcohol can be sold gross or go through a specific purifying and be utilized in the industry.